A EURO pallet is a reusable four-way entry flat pallet made
of wood, which is manufactured, inspected and labelled in
accordance with the following stipulations.
EUR pallets must bear the following symbols on the runner
boards on both long sides:
On the right runner board - the EUR registered trademark
On the centre runner board - the IPPC compliant ISPM 15
designation and the label of the authorising railway
company, and the manufacturing code
On the left runner board - the registered trademark of
the European Pallet Association EPAL
The manufacturing code 000-0-00 indicates the approved
manufacturer in the first group (digits/letters), and the
last digit of the year of manufacture and the month of
manufacture in the second group.
Standardised nail pattern
All EPAL approved EUR pallets bear a graded inspection
seal with the EPAL quality symbol
After successful repair, the EPAL approved EUR pallets
are fitted with the special EPAL repair nail symbol
The symbols must be completely burned into the wood.
Approved types of wood
Coniferous wood (1)
poplar (1) + (2)
(1) With coniferous woods and poplar, the width of the annual
rings, measured at 10 rings, may not be more than 7 mm on
(2) Not permissible for cross boards
Other types of wood are only permissible if they posses, as
a minimum, the same mechanical properties as the types of
wood listed in the table. Derived timber products (min.
density of 600 kg/m³) are only permissible for certain
The wood must be free of any traces of wood
The following are unacceptable:
Decay (mildew, fungus, dry rot)
Active insect infestations
All boards must be cut from a single piece. The boards on the
loading deck and underside of the pallet must be rough (not
The moisture content of wood may not exceed 22 % of the
weight of the dry wood (dry wood weight).
All EUR pallets manufactured since 01/01/2010 have been
treated in accordance with ISPM 15. An EUR pallet treated
according to ISPM 15 can be recognised by the branding on
both centre runner boards on the long side. A branded label
according to ISPM 15 on both centre runner boards on the
short side is also possible.
If oak is used, dull edges are not permissible. For other
types of wood, dull edges are acceptable on 2 edges of each
part, under the condition that they do not have any bark, are
on the top and do not exceed 15 mm when measured
transversely. They are not allowed for use as cross boards,
centre floor boards or on any outside edges of the top or
The EUR pallet is designed for the following loads when
supported in shelving units or on the forks of a
1000 kg, (nominal load) if the load is not uniformly
distributed on the deck of the pallet
1500 kg, if the load is uniformly distributed on the deck
of the pallet
2000 kg, if the load is in a compact form, evenly
distributed and lies flush on the entire surface area of
the pallet deck
When stacked, the max. load of the bottom pallet is 4000 kg,
as long as it is positioned on a level, horizontal and rigid
surface, and the stacked load is also horizontally positioned
and covers the entire surface of the deck.
Europe wide Pallet Exchange criteria (excludes UK)
If EUR pallets have one or more of the following types of
damage, they cannot be exchanged and must be repaired
according to the provisions of UIC specification 435-4.
Generally poor condition:
The max. load can no longer be ensured (rotten, decayed,
It is so heavily soiled that goods will be contaminated.
Heavy splintering is evident on multiple runners.
It is obvious that unacceptable components have been used
(e.g. thin boards, runners that are too narrow).
Provisions of repair
A board on the top or bottom deck is so splintered that
more than one nail or screw shaft is visible.
The EUR marking on the right or the railway company symbol
on left is missing.
One or more boards are missing.
A runner is missing, or is so splintered that more than one
nail is visible.
There is a crosswise or diagonal break in one of the
More than two boards on the top or bottom deck are so
splintered that more than one nail or screw shaft is
EUR pallets which do not meet the criteria specified for
exchange must be repaired in accordance with UIC 435-4. EUR
pallets can only be repaired by firms which have acquired a
license from EPAL. Only parts which are true to size in
accordance with UIC 435-2 and UIC 435-4 may be used. After
repair, EUR pallets must exhibit the same technical
properties as a new EUR pallet.